Osteoarthritis is the arthritis of Knee. It is a joint inflammation that results from cartilage degeneration. It is affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of your bones wears down over time.It can damage any joint in your body.This most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine.
Stages of OA
At this Stage, The cartilage may be slightly damaged. There is no clear sign of narrowing of the space between the bones to indicate the cartilage is breaking down. At this stage people are unlikely to feel any pain or discomfort
At this Stage the symptoms of OA begin to get more noticeable, Bone spur growth increases and the space between the bones appear normal and The cartilage will begin to slightly thin.People experience joint pain. They feel stiffness around the knee joints stiff and uncomfortable, while sitting for long period, after rising in the morning or after a workout.
Stage 3- Moderate
At this stage the damage to the cartilage progresses and the gap between the bones become narrow and cartilage loss can be seen on X-rays. The bones develop spurs at the joints and it becomes rougher.With the progression of osteoarthritis of the knee people feel frequent pain when walking, running, squatting, extending or kneeling and also stiffness after sitting for long or when waking up in the morning.
Stage 4- Severe
At this stage, the symptoms are very visible. The joint space between the bones reduces and causes the cartilage to break down .The breakdown of cartilage leads to a chronic inflammatory response, with decreased synovial fluid that causes greater pain and discomfort when walking or moving the joint.The advanced stage of the disease shows development of more spurs causing excruciating pain.
Osteoarthritis symptoms develop slowly and worsen over time. It include:
1. Pain:- Joint may hurt during or after movement.
2. Tenderness:- Joint may feel tender when you apply light pressure to it.
3. Stiffness:- Joint stiffness most noticeable when wake up in the morning or after a period of inactivity.
4. Loss of flexibility:- You may not be able to move your joint through its full range of motion.
5. Grating sensation:- You may hear or feel a grating sensation when you use the joint.
Causes and Risk Factors
Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in your joints gradually deteriorates. The surface of the cartilage becomes rough and the cartilage wears down completely.
Old Age:- The risk of osteoarthritis increases with age.
Obesity:- Carrying extra body weight contributes to osteoarthritis in several ways. The More Fatty You are, the greater your risk. Increased weight puts stress on weight-bearing joints, such as your hips and knees. fat tissue produces proteins that cause harmful inflammation in joints.
Joint injuries:- Injuries that occur when playing sports or from an accident, increase the risk of osteoarthritis.
Certain occupations:- If your job includes tasks that place repetitive stress on a particular joint,the joint eventually develop osteoarthritis.
Genetics:- Some people inherit a tendency to develop osteoarthritis.
Role of Physiotherapy
- Physiotherapy Modalities to relieve pain and inflammation.
- Stretching and Strengthening Exercise.
- Alignment Correction through Manual Therapy
- Taping Technique for Instant Pain Relief
- Laser Therapy for Instant Pain Relief.
- Life Style Modification