Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

An Anterior Cruciate LigamentTear (ACL Tear) is one of the most common knee injury.Athletes who participate in sports like soccer, football, and basketball suffer from this.ACL is made of tough fibrous material and functions to control excessive knee motion by limiting joint mobility.About 80% of sports-related ACL tears are “non-contact” injuries means the injury occurs without the contact of another player. Female athletes have a higher risk of an ACL tear .



The ACL can be injured in several ways.

  • Changing direction rapidly
  • Stopping suddenly
  • Slowing down while running
  • Landing from a jump incorrectly
  • Direct contact or collision, such as a football tackle



  • Pain with swelling.
  • Loss of full range of motion specially Loss of Extension.
  • Tenderness along the joint line
  • Discomfort while walking
  • Large Effusion/Haemarthrosis.
  • Initially unable to continue activities.

ACL Progression:-

Grade 1 Sprains:-The ligament gets mildly damage in a Grade 1 Sprain. It slightly stretched, but is still able to help keep the knee joint stable.

Grade 2 Sprains:-It stretches the ligament to the point where it becomes loose. It is called a partial tear of the ligament.

Grade 3 Sprains:- It is most commonly referred to as a complete tear of the ligament. The ligament split into two pieces and the knee joint become unstable.


Role of Physiotherapy

  • Reduce Pain, Inflammation, Swelling, Oedema
  • P- Protection, R- Rest, I-Ice, C- Compression, E-Elevation
  • Physiotherapy Assessment
  • Stabilization, Precautions and Home Programme
  • Pain Management with Advanced Modalities
  • Normalize joint range of motion.
  • Strengthen your knee: Quadriceps and Hamstrings.
  • Strengthen your lower limb: Calves, Hip and Pelvis muscles.
  • Improve patellofemoral (kneecap) alignment
  • Normalise your muscle length
  • Minimise your chance of re-injury.
  • Reduces Muscle tightness, Stiffness and Spasm
  • Tapping for maintaining proper positioning and fast healing
  • Laser for Instant Pain Relief
  • Proprioceptive and Balance Training
  • Gait Training to Improve your technique and function eg walking, running, squatting, hopping and landing